209.03 Individuals and Institutions : How to Advance Women in Science
Author(s): Virginia Valian
Institution(s): 1. Hunter Coll & CUNY Grad Ctr

Second talk (program rearranged)

Conceptualize the problem

   Individual women need fixing
   Institutions need fixing
   How individuals and institutions interact needs fixing
ADVANCE focuses on second and third ones

Hunter concentrated on more subtle problems, didn't have a hiring problem

Mentoring programs, workshops

   People are not successful by accident
   White men receive mentoring not labeled as such
   Successful white men have various people for different needs; promoting a
circle of advisers rather than a single mentor; mentor mosaic
      Nobody has to lay down her life for you
      The mentee figures out needs
      Eliminate "you're too good, you don't need a mentor"
      Getting good advice is lifelong procedure
    Sponsorship program 
       Did involve a single person, workshops, interventions
       ADVANCE has helped create female leaders
       Pay someone to be a sponsor
       Must be in another dept
       Agree to meet regularly, read everything the person writes, go over
proposals and rejections, suggest conferences to speak at, report to Valian
every semester.
       Sponsors like the reporting requirement
    Worshops spun off
       Cover every aspect of being an academic
       Acquisition of necessary skills
       Both males and females participated
       Participants increased grants and publications
       Effective, cost effective
Changing hiring practices

   Guiding principles are important
   Multiple approaches are key to success
      Do a lot of things over and over again
      STRIDE: key idea from literature on persuasion: particular people, experts
are most likely to effect change, review evidence of errors in judgement
      Use only studies everyone found convincing
      Deans approve only searches with nontraditional candidates on shortlist
      Use habit literature for cues on how to change poor practices
      How to know whether interventions are causal agent? Need more money to
find out.
Long-term issues. How long does it take for change to occur?

   Over ten years, surveys show climate has improved for men and women
   Need to train people to be effective, whether leaders or not
   Prize inequalities in astronomy; cited Heinemann prize but things are looking
up; cited Tinsley Prize
Q. How do you choose sponsors? A. We asked women about demographic qualities;
some women of color wanted same ethnicity, some wanted women. Literature
suggests demo matches don't matter [Valian said more in answer to this question,
but I didn't write it all down.]